SOME IMAGES ARE GRAPHIC AND MAY BE DISTURBING.
1) German troops entered Lviv at the end of June 1941, welcomed by Ukrainians as liberators from Soviet rule as the last detachments of the Russian army left the city. In this photo taken July 1, laughing Ukrainian adults and children lead Jews along the sidewalk with hands up, a scene rendered eerie by the smile of a woman who doesn't seem to grasp the situation. Ukrainian sign: VODKA-WINE-LIQUOR (Photo obtained 2022 from dealer in eastern Germany)
2) A German soldier wearing boots, in foreground at far right, watches as Ukrainians lead terrified Jews with hands up. German caption on reverse: “Jews from Lemberg are taken away by their own compatriots to get the corpses found in Lemberg.” See Photo #6 caption for context. (Photo obtained in 2018 from a dealer in southwestern Germany)
3) In these three photos taken July 1, 1941, Ukrainians force Jews to scrub the pavement on hands and knees in front of the Lviv opera house. (Photo obtained in 2012 from a dealer in Meiningen, Germany)
4) Second of three photos at opera house (Photo obtained in 2012 from a dealer in Meiningen, Germany)
5) I shared this photo with historian John-Paul Himka, who displayed it across two full pages of his 2009 book "Ukrainians, Jews and the Holocaust: Divergent Memories." His caption: "Lviv, circa 1 July 1941. Behind the opera house, Jews are made to clean the streets on their knees." The scene is actually near the front entrance. (Photo obtained in 2002 from a dealer in Germany)
6) On July 1 and 2, bodies of Ukrainians, Poles, Germans, and Jews were found in three former Soviet NKVD prisons in Lviv left behind by the retreating Russians. Local Ukrainians blamed the killings of their brethren on the Jews, and attacked them. These 14 photos -- some of which are quite graphic -- show the bodies, as well as German soldiers, local Ukrainians, and bloodied Jews. (Photo obtained in 2002 from a dealer in Germany)
7) A German soldier is partly visible in foreground at far right.
8) In prison courtyard, Jews bloodied from beatings await their fate. This is the only photo included in historian John-Paul Himka's 2021 book "Ukrainian Nationalists and the Holocaust."